When choosing a specific type of foundation for a cottage, it is necessary to take into account the total weight of the structure, the physical characteristics of the soil and the climatic zone of the location.
TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
- On screw piles. A new method of foundation construction, piles are made of low alloy steel, screwed to different depths. To increase the durability and bearing capacity of the cavity piles can be filled with concrete. Advantages: minimum construction time (depending on the number of piles and the terrain, construction work can be continued in a few days), versatility of use. Disadvantages – relatively high price. But if we take into account all the costs, then the use of pile foundations reduces the estimated cost of construction. The grillage can be made of wooden beams or metal bars.
- Columnar. The depth of the columns is ≈ 50 cm, on clay soils it is imperative to make a sand cushion 15 ÷ 20 cm thick, the linear dimensions of the columns depend on the architectural features of the building. Advantages – low cost, the possibility of self-construction. Disadvantages – some restrictions on the physical characteristics of soils, they cannot be erected in waterlogged or swampy areas. The grillage can be made of reinforced concrete.
- Reinforced tape shallow. In all performance characteristics, it occupies an intermediate place. The depth of occurrence is up to 60 cm, building reinforcement of a periodic profile Ø 10÷12 mm is used for reinforcement.
- Traditional tape. Suitable for heavy multi-storey buildings. Advantages – high bearing characteristics, resistance to uneven loads. The depth of occurrence should be 15 ÷ 20 cm higher than the maximum depth of soil freezing in winter. Disadvantages – high cost, a large amount of earthworks, an increase in the construction time of the building.
Before making a decision, it is better to consult with professional builders.